What is singeing?
In textile manufacturing, singeing is a process used to burn off the small fibers or hairs from the surface of the fabric in order to create a smooth surface. During the weaving process, fibers can stick up from the surface of the fabric, which can cause issues with the appearance and quality of the finished product. Singeing eliminates this problem by burning off the protruding fibers, leaving a smooth surface.
The singeing process typically involves passing the fabric over a flame or through a series of gas burners. The fabric is then passed through a cooling chamber to prevent it from igniting. The result is a smoother fabric with a cleaner appearance and improved dye uptake.
Singeing is commonly used in the production of cotton, linen, and synthetic fabrics. It is an important step in the manufacturing process and can significantly improve the quality and appearance of the finished product.
Objectives of singeing:
The main objectives of singeing in textile manufacturing are:
- To remove protruding fibers or hairs from the surface of the fabric: During the weaving process, fibers can stick up from the surface of the fabric, which can cause issues with the appearance and quality of the finished product. Singeing eliminates this problem by burning off the protruding fibers, leaving a smooth surface.
- To improve the fabric’s appearance: Singeing helps to create a smoother and more uniform surface on the fabric, which improves its appearance and makes it more visually appealing.
- To improve the fabric’s dye uptake: Singeing can improve the fabric’s dye uptake by removing any impurities or surface irregularities that may hinder the absorption of dye.
- To increase the fabric’s dimensional stability: Singeing can also help to increase the dimensional stability of the fabric by reducing the shrinkage that can occur during subsequent processing steps.
- To reduce pilling: Pilling is the formation of small balls or pills on the surface of the fabric due to the rubbing of fibers. Singeing can reduce pilling by removing the protruding fibers that are more prone to rubbing and pilling.
- To increase the fabric’s softness: Singeing can also make the fabric feel softer by removing any harsh or rough fibers on the surface.
- To improve the fabric’s printing quality: Singeing can help to improve the printing quality of the fabric by creating a smoother surface that allows for better ink penetration and adhesion.
- To enhance the fabric’s performance: Singeing can also enhance the fabric’s performance properties, such as its moisture management, by improving the surface wettability and reducing surface tension.
Overall, singeing is a versatile process that can provide many benefits to textile manufacturers, from improving the appearance and quality of the fabric to enhancing its performance properties.
Flow Chart of Singeing Process:
Pre –Brushing (Remove dirt & dust)
Metal detector (Detect metal impurities)
J-Scray (For continuous fabric)
Gas-singeing (Burn protruding fiber)
Post-Brushing (Remove surface fiber)
Types of singeing:
There are two main types of singeing processes used in textile manufacturing:
- Plate Singeing: Plate singeing is the most common method of singeing and involves passing the fabric over a hot metal plate. The fabric is passed over the plate at high speed, and the protruding fibers are burned off by the heat. The temperature of the plate and the speed at which the fabric is passed over it can be adjusted to achieve the desired degree of singeing.
- Roller Singeing: Roller singeing involves passing the fabric through a set of rotating cylinders that are heated from within. As the fabric passes over the cylinders, the protruding fibers are burned off by the heat. The temperature and speed of the rollers can be adjusted to achieve the desired degree of singeing.
In addition to plate and roller singeing, there are a few other types of singeing processes used in textile manufacturing:
- Gas Singeing: Gas singeing involves passing the fabric over a series of gas burners, where the protruding fibers are burned off by the heat. This method is particularly useful for singeing fabrics with a high degree of elasticity, such as Lycra and spandex, which may not be suitable for plate or roller singeing.
- Brush Singeing: Brush singeing involves brushing the fabric with wire brushes that are heated by gas burners or electricity. The protruding fibers are burned off by the heat, and the brushes help to remove any remaining impurities from the surface of the fabric.
- Chemical Singeing: Chemical singeing is a newer process that involves applying a chemical treatment to the fabric surface to dissolve or soften the protruding fibers, which are then removed by washing or brushing. This method is less aggressive than traditional singeing processes and may be preferred for delicate fabrics.