Jute is a natural vegetable fiber that falls under the category of bast fibers such as flax, hemp, kenaf, and ramie. Traditional cultivation has occurred in the east of the Indian subcontinent, which today comprises West Bengal of India and the plains of Bangladesh. Jute is an annual plant belonging to the genus Corchorus of the order Tiliacea. There usually are two species, viz. Commercially, Tossa and White jute, also known as Corchorus olitorius and Corchorus capsularis, are grown known as Mesta and includes two varieties – Hibiscus cannabinus and Hibiscus Sabdariffa.
The process of arranging raw jute according to its quality that is known as jute grading.
Jute Grading Factor:
The factors considered during grading include color, length, fiber fineness, luster, strength, cleanness, free of defects, and how much root end will need to be removed. A good-quality fiber is strong, has an even color, has high luster, does not have defects, and does not have a lot of roots. Undoubtedly, each region produces different grades of fiber depending on its soil, climatic and cultural characteristics, and especially on the quality of its retting water. A fiber with access to clean water always performs better than one with only dirty, muddy water. In addition to retting, seed choice and harvest time also contribute to quality.
Summary the qualities upon which jute grading depending:
- Fiber properties.
- Roots and cleanliness.
- Quality of raw jute:
- Pucca Grading
- Kucha Grading.
Jute grading System:
Pucca Grading: The grading of raw jute whose roots have been cut is called pucca grading.
Kucha Grading: The raw jute which has not been cut off its roots is known as kucha grading.
Grading of Tossa Jute
|Pucca Grade||Kucha Grade|
|Bangla Tossa Special (B.T.S)||Top|
|Bangla Tossa-A (B.T.A)||Middle|
|Bangla Tossa-B (B.T.B)||B-Bottom|
|Bangla Tossa-C (B.T.C)||C-Bottom|
|Bangla Tossa-D (B.T.D)||X-Bottom|
|Bangla Tossa-E (B.T.E)||S.M.R|
Pucca Grading of Tossa Jute:
1.Bangla Tossa Special (B.T.S):
This types of jute is uniform color, golden/red, tossa of finest texture, very strong and very good lusture, Completely free from any defects, clean cut and well hacked.
2. Bangla Tossa-A (B.T.A)
Bangla Tossa-A is uniform grey to golden color or uniform light golden to reddish color, fine texture, strong and good lusture, free from any defects, clean out and well hackled.
3. Bangla Tossa-B (B.T.B)
This graded jute is light to medium grey or reddish color, sound clean, good texture, average lusture, defect less, cleen cut and well hackled.
4. Bangla Tossa-C (B.T.C)
This graded jute is mixed colors, average strength, occasionally bark and soft speaks allowable, but free from runners, slightly coppy and gummy tops possible, well cut and hackled but free from root ends.
5. Bangla Tossa-D (B.T.D)
This graded jute is mixed color, average strength, occasionally bark and specks but free from runners. Gummy and croppy tops may be roughcut and hackled, but black root ends must not be present.
6. Bangla Tossa-E (B.T.E)
This graded jute is may any color, any strength but free from perished fibers, free from stick. But bark and hard is center permissible.
Grading of white jute
|Pucca Grade||Kucha Grade|
|Bangla White Special (B.W.S)||Top|
|Bangla White-A (B.W.A)||Middle|
|Bangla White-B (B.W.B)||B-Bottom|
|Bangla White-C (B.W.C)||C-Bottom|
|Bangla White-D (B.W.D)||X-Bottom|
Pucca Grading of White Jute
1.Bangla White Special (B.W.S):
This graded jute is white or creamy, finest texture, very strong, bright, defect less, clean, well hackled and entirely tree from red ends.
2. Bangla White-A (B.W.A)
This graded jute is white to cream of fine texture, strong and very good lusture, completely free from any blemish, clean and free from red ends.
3. Bangla White-B (B.W.B):
This graded jute is light cram to straw color, jute of good lusture, strong and free from blemish, clean cut and well hackled, red ends excluded.
4. Bangla White-C (B.W.C)
This graded jute is light brownish, light reddish to straw color, clean and strong, bright, average lusture, free from hark specks and hard gummy tops well cut, well hackled free from black, roots, red soft ends permissible.
5. Bangla White-D (B.W.D)
The graded jute is any color, average strength, occasional bark and specks permissible slightly croppy and gummy tops, permissible will cut on the hard and hackled, red ends permissible.
Grading of cuttings
|Pucca Grade||Kucha Grade|
|White Jute||Bangla White C-A (B.W.C.A)||S.N.C|
|White Jute||Bangla White C-B (B.W.C.B)||N.C|
|Tossa Jute||Bangla White C-A (B.W.C.A)||T.S.N.C|
|Tossa Jute||Bangla White C-B (B.W.C.B)||T.N.C|
Grading of Cutting (Kucha)
Suprion Narayangonj Cutting’s are got by cutting the robits of well grade white jute.
Narayangonj Cutting is the root of low graded jute.
Tossa Superion Narayangonj Cutting is the root of the high graded tossa jute.
Tossa Narayangonj Cutting are the root of the low graded tossa jute.
Kucha Grading Jute:
This graded jute is very strong fiber, excellent color and luster, free from all defects, cutting is not more than for white 15% and for tossa 10%.
This graded jute is strong, sound fiber, average color for the district free from speack runners and harsh crop end. (white 25% and tossa 15%)
This graded jute is sound fiber, medium length, free from hard centered jute.( white 30% and Tossa 20%)
This graded jute fiber is medium strength, not suitable for higher grade. (White 30% and Tossa 25%)
This graded jute is medium strength, any color, free from runners.
This graded jute is weak, harsh but free from tangled jute and stick.
Tangled raveled jute of any sort, free from dust and cuttings.
- Hossain, M. S. (2014). Introduction to Textile Engineering. Dhaka: Books Fair Publications.
- Kadolph, S. J. (2009). Textiles. New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley.
- Siddique, D. H. (n.d.). Natural Fibers. Dhaka.