1.What is denim?
Denim is one of the world’s most iconic fabrics. Denim is popular across national and cultural boundaries, and denim jeans have become a symbol of American culture worldwide. Denim is a sturdy cotton warp-faced textile in which the weft passes under two or more warp threads. This twill weaving produces a diagonal ribbing that distinguishes it from cotton duck. In other words, denim is characteristic of any indigo denim in that only the warp threads are dyed, whereas the weft threads remain white. As a result of the warp-faced twill weaving, one side of the fabric shows the blue warp threads, and the other side shows the white weft threads.
2. Types of denim:
2.Types of denim:
People all over the world have been in love with this venerable fabric for well more than a century. There are different types of denim. Collectively types of denim are as follows:
|1.Dry denim or raw denim||11. Acid wash denim|
|2.Selvedge denim||12. silk denim|
|3.Flat-finish denim||13. Indigo denim|
|4.Poly denim||14. Chambre fabrics|
|5.Organic denim||15. Colored denim|
|6.Sanforized denim||16. Stone wash denim.|
|7.Stretch denim||17. Ecru denim.|
|8.Crushed denim||18. Vintage denim|
|9.Ring denim||19. Slub denim.|
|10.Bull denim||20. Tencel denim.|
All types of denim fabric which is mentioned above are discussed below:
2.1 Dry denim or raw denim:
Dry or raw denim, as opposed to washed denim. This types of fabric is not washed, treated with finishing chemicals or distressed in any manner after being dyed during its production. Dry or raw denim is initially dark in colour and stiff to the touch but over time, denim will generally soften and fade, which is often considered desirable. During the process of wear, it is typical to see fading on areas that generally receive the most stress which includes the upper thighs, the ankles and behind the knees.
2.2 Selvedge denim:
Selvedge denim has a fringe at the end, and this types of fabric is usually used to make jackets. Japan is the top producer of this types of denim fabric. This denim is very popularly assumed to be of better quality than other denim fabric.
2.3 Flat finish denim
Flat finishing is a process performed at the mill to impart denim with an evenly distributed wash-down color and smooth surface. Manufacturers use the mercerization and calendaring processes to produce a flat denim finish. Mercerization swells the cotton fibers, and the rollers of the calendar machine flatten the denim surface. The combination process also creates the trademark sheen or polish of certain denim fabrics.
2.4 Poly denim
This type of denim fabric is produced from blended yarn, mainly polyester and cotton. This fabric is very soft to the touch. This fabric’s strength is high as polyester fibers are used here. Polyester adds to the durability of the fabric. In poly denim, polyester with cotton and lyocell, nylon, and other synthetic fibers were used. Some people say that poly denim is not “real” denim.
2.5 Organic denim
In organic denim, no chemicals are used in cotton growth or manufacturing. That means organic denim is manufactured with 100 percent organic cotton. Organic denim, as with other organic textiles, is regulated by the Organic Trade Association under strict guidelines regarding sustainable le growing conditions, the use of natural pesticides, non-toxic fiber processing, colorants, and fabric treatments.
2.6 Sanforized denim:
Sanforized is a washing process. Sanforized denim fabric is softer but less durable. It is essential to know if raw denim is sanforized. If it is not may need to go up a size to allow for shrinkage. The label may refer to this type of denim as pre-shrunk.
2.7 Stretch denim:
Stretch denim is made from blended yarn. Spandex or lycra is used to give the fabric stretch quality. Stretch denim is a wildly popular innovation welcomed by people of all body types; no longer are you a slave to your blue jeans, the stretchable character of stretch denim gives with the body rather than restricting movement. This material includes a small percentage of spandex woven into the cotton fibers and most closely resembles authentic denim than any other blend.
2.8 Crushed denim:
Crushed denim is similar to velvet. Crushed denim has been treated so that it has a wrinkled look. This fabric is often used in conjunction with an acid wash or stone wash to give a worn look or vintage look. A textured effect is achieved through wet processing.
2.9 Ring denim:
Ring spinning is the original method to produce denim fabric. In the early 1970s, denim manufacturers abandoned complex ring spinning in favor of the less expensive open-end spinning technique. With the surge in popularity of vintage-look blue jeans, manufacturers have reintroduced ring denim manufacturing. In part, ring denim gets its appeal from the fabric’s surface irregularities or slubs formed during manufacturing.
2.10 Bull denim
Bull denim is one of the types of denim fabric that is very tough and study and is made from 100% cotton. Bull denim is heavier, more durable, and longer lasting than traditional denim. Though bull denim is more serious, this fabric takes dye quickly and is more even—Bull denim suits, hats, slipcovers, tote bags, shorts, and trousers.
2.11 Acid wash denim:
Acid wash denim is also known as marble denim. To produce this type of fabric is used pumice stone is made with bleach or potassium per manganite. Due to the abrasion of the rock, color comes out from the material. As a result fading effect is produced.
2.12 Silk denim:
Silk is a popular fabric favored for its natural beauty, softness, and durability. Silk’s sturdy and supple nature is the perfect partner for rugged denim. The strength of fine silk threads allows them to be easily woven into lightweight denim fabrics. Silk denim is a fashionable alternative to everyday jeans and jackets.
2.13 Indigo denim:
Indigo denim is the most common type of denim fabric. In this type of denim, warp thread is dyed with indigo dye, and the weft thread is the white or undyed thread. The name indigo came from the indigo plant.
2.14 Chambre fabric:
Chambre fabric is not same as denim. But chamber fabric’s similar in appearance and also lightweight. There is little difference between Chambre fabric and denim. Denim fabric is created using a twill weave, but Chambre fabric is made with a plain weave.
2.15 Colored denim:
Colored denim may classify into two. One is blue denim, and the other is the rest of various colors. Blue denim is made using indigo dye. Different shades, such as black, green, grey, and pink, are created using sulfur dye. Sometimes tinting is done to make a more profound effect.
2.16 Stone wash denim
Pumice stone is used to make stone wash denim. Due to the abrasion of the stone, some color comes out of the fabric. That’s why fading or irregular effect is created. Durability is less than other denim because stone reduces the fabric strength.
2.17 Ecru denim:
No need for an indigo dyeing process to make ecru denim. Weft thread and weft of ecru denim are undyed or gray. Ecru denim’s color is a pale creamy color. This fabric has the natural color as bot weft, and warp thread is not dyed.
2.18 Vintage denim:
To achieve the vintage look of denim, denim is treated with a heavy stone or a cellulose enzyme wash with bleach or without bleach. Vintage look as an old and worn outlook of denim.
2.19 Slub denim:
Slub denim is made from uneven-thickness thread. Uneven-thickness thread creates a texture effect on slub denim. We know that the strength of slub thread is very low. That’s why slub denim strength is also low.
2.20 Tencel denim:
Tencel denim is made from lyocell fiber. Lyocell is a form of regenerated cellulose. This fiber is made by dissolving pulp and reconstituting it by jet-wet spinning. Tencel fabric is 50% more absorbent than cotton and has a longer wicking distance compared to the modal fabric of a similar weave.
In this article, I tried best to present easily different types of denim. If you have any confusion or any question, let me know by comment box.