What is Jute Emulsion?
The jute batching emulsions are usually made from mineral oil and water, together with an emulsifier. Emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible liquids in which one of the liquids is dispersed in droplet form inside another. It is necessary to expand on this seemingly contradictory definition. The oil and water are usually immiscible, however if the oil can be divided into minute drops that don’t coalesce, then they can be dispersed throughout the water to form an emulsion.
Emulsions consist of two phases, an external phase and an internal phase. In jute batching emulsions, water is the external phase and mineral oil is the internal phase. In an emulsion, batching oil is normally a golden, amber color, while water is, of course, colorless. However, when these two are mixed together the resultant liquid is milky white. Due to the very small oil droplets on the surface, light scatters in all directions, giving the appearance of white, much like the minute pits in ground glass.
Objects of Jute Emulsion Application:
- Jute is softened by destroying it.
- In order to make the jute fiber spinnable.
- To improve the yarn and remove hairiness.
- Reducing the amount of waste generated during processing.
- n order to improve cohesive force.
- Enhance the drafting process.
Standard emulsion recipe:
Function of Emulsion Ingredients:
Function of water:
- water increases extensibility of fiber which resist fiber which resist fiber breakage during processing especially in carding process.
- water gives sufficient dampness which helps the fiber to be flexible.
- It also helps to make the fiber to easily bend round the pins and rollers.
Function of mineral oil:
- Oil lubricates the fiber.
- Oil helps free movement of fiber during processing.
- It cleans pins and rollers of the machine.
- It makes fiber soften and gives good spinning property.
- Oil increases cohesion of fiber.
- Water also helps to proper drafting.
- It also helps to reduces quick evaporation of water from the fiber body.
Function of emulsifier:
- Emulsifier removes temporary hardness of water.
- It helps emulsion to be in stable form.
- It makes droplet formation easier.
- It prevents separation of oil from water.
- It reduces surface tension.
Characteristics of good quality emulsion:
- Emulsion should be stable for certain period.
- Emulsion should be colorless. It should not impact on the color of jute.
- It should not have bed effect on jute fiber.
- It must be cheap and available in market.
- It should have high softening capacity
- The droplet of emulsion should be small because small droplet can easily penetrate on the fiber.
- It must be odorless.
Defect/fault of emulsion:
The most obvious defect in an emulsion is the incorrect ratio of oil to water. As this was obviously caused by carelessness in preparation, there is little more to say at this point. Besides this obvious fault, two other defects may occur.
When preparing an emulsion, a few drops will be very small, while others will be much larger. In general, the smaller the drops and the less scatter there is in their diameters, the better the emulsion. It is likely that a layer of large oil drops will form on the surface of the emulsion if there are a large number of them due to their lower specific gravity. This is referred to as ‘creaming’ in emulsion technology.
Causes of creaming:
- When improper oil is selection for emulsion.
- If not accurate mixing ratio of water, emulsifier and oil.
- Bad agitation of the mixture when emulsion is prepared.
Remedy to avoid creaming:
- Proper oil should be select. We can avoid the problem by using oil of high specific gravity.
- We can avoid creaming problem of emulsion by slow running paddles to stir the mixture. So that the droplet size can be kept in small size.
- Emulsion should not be stored for long time after making
In breaking, the droplets of the internal oil phase unite to form large drops that float to the surface of the emulsion. It is a sign of complete instability in the emulsion and cannot be stopped once it has begun. A broken emulsion cannot be repaired by re-agitation once the drops have formed. Jute batching emulsions may break quickly or over several days, but the presence of free oil on the surface should indicate a poor emulsion on the verge of breaking.
Causes of breaking:
- Emulsion may break due to faulty stirring equipment.
- When less quality emulsifier is used.
- Due to high speed agitation.
Remedy to avoid creaming:
- Should be used fault less stirring equipment.
- Use high quality emulsifier.
- Avoid high speed agitation.
Kazi Rashedul Islam is an “Assistant Technical Officer” at the Textile Engineering department at Jashore University of Science and Technology (JUST). He achieved his Bachelor of Science in Textile Engineering from Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology (DUET) in 2018. In 2012 he completed a Diploma in Textile Engineering degree from Begumgonj Textile Engineering College(TECN), Noakhali.