# How to Calculate Fabric Costing Easy Way: Woven Fabric and Knitted Fabric Costing

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## Introduction

This article will be present how to calculate fabric costing  in garments industry with example. This examples will help to understand the estimations of fabric costing per kilogram or per metre individually at different stages of fabric manufacturing. From this article, merchandiser can calculate fabric costing both woven fabric and knitted fabric.  With the help of those woven fabric costing and knitted fabric costing methods, the merchandiser will derive the cost of the overall process and merchandiser will conclude the cost of the fabric per kg or for an individual garments or for the order quantity required. This value will guide the merchandiser’s search for sources to lower costs at every stage of the manufacturing process, from yarn sourcing to finishing. The merchandiser will always keep the cost as low as possible to compete in the real time market since the fabric or raw material is the major driving factor for the cost of the product.

## Calculate Fabric Costing

In this article, I will show you how to calculate woven fabric costing and knitted fabric costing with example. All data provided in the examples are used only for understanding purposes. But when you calculate woven fabric costing or knitted fabric costing in your factory, you must need used right value by checking market price. But following some factors need to consider when calculate woven fabric costing or knitted fabric costing.

1. EPI and PPI of woven fabric.
2. GSM of knitted fabric.
3. Loop density of knitted fabric ( WPI and CPI).
4. Knitted fabric dimensional shrinkage.
5. Scouring, bleaching, dyeing and finishing cost.
6. Weight loss percentage of fabric for bleaching.

Let’s come to learn how to calculate woven fabric costing and knitted fabric costing.

## Exercise: Calculate Woven Fabric Costing

Example 1: An industry that manufactures woven fabrics received an order for the development of fabric based on the following description with a 30,000 metre order quantity. This fabric is 100% cotton with 85 EPI and 80 PPI, 65s Ne warp and 45s Ne weft, and 6% crimps on the warp and 7% on the weft. Based on the fabric add on and other cost details in the table 1, calculate the woven fabric costing per square metre. Fabric width of 56 inches is produced in the weaving shed.

Solution

Step 1: Calculate total weight of the fabric

• Warp weight= {EPI×39.384×453.4 × (crimp+100)} ÷ (warp count × 0.914 × 840×100) = {85×39.384×453.4 × (6+100)} ÷ (65 × 0.914 × 840×100)= 32.24 gram
• Weft weight= {PPI×39.384×453.4 × (crimp+100)} ÷ (weft count × 0.914 × 840×100) = {80×39.384×453.4 × (7+100)} ÷ (45 × 0.914 × 840×100)= 44.24 grams
• Total weight of the fabric = 32.24+ 44.24= 76.48 gram per square metre

Step 2: total cost of yarn

• Cost of the warp yarn= weight in gram × yarn cost/kg= 32.24 × (300 ÷1000)= Rs. 9.67
• Cost of the weft yarn= weight in gram × yarn cost/kg= 44.24 × (200 ÷1000)= Rs. 8.85
• Total cost of yarn per square metre of the fabric= 9.67+ 8.85= Rs. 18.52

Step 3: Calculate grey fabric cost per square metre

• Weaving cost of the fabric per square metre= fabric width × pick rate= 56 × 0.25= Rs. 14
• Cost of the grey fabric= yarn cost + weaving cost= 18.52+ 14= Rs. 32.52

Step 4: Processing cost calculation

• Scouring and bleaching cost = Rs. 120 per kg
• Cost per square metre= 120 × ( 76.48 ÷ 1000)= Rs. 9.18
• Dyeing add on= 76.48 × (5% of 76.48)= 80.30 gram per square metre
• Dyeing cost= 70 × (80.30 ÷1000)= Rs. 5.62
• Finishing add on= 80.30 + ( 8% of 80.30)= 86.72 gram per square metre
• Finishing cost= 60 ×(86.72÷ 1000)= Rs. 5.20
• Total processing cost= 9.18+5.62+5.20= Rs. 20

Step 5: Calculate final woven fabric costing

• Final woven fabric cost= Grey fabric cost + processing cost= 32.52 +20= Rs. 52.52

Example 2: A woven fabric manufacturer received an order for the development of fabric with the following description for 30,000 metres. Featuring 70 EPI and 60 PPI, the warp count is 60s Ne and the weft count is 80 denier, and the warp and weft crimps are 5% and 7%, respectively, the fabric is made up of 100% mercerized cotton in the warp and 100% polyester in the weft. With 1.65 square metres of fabric consumed by each shirt, the fabric consumption is significant. The fabric has been processed through souring, bleaching (2%), dyeing (4%), and finishing (6%). The weaving shed produces fabric with of 56 inch. Fabric add on, weight loss percentage and other raw material price is given table 2.

Solution

Step 1: Calculate total weight of the fabric

• Warp weight= {EPI×39.384×453.4 × (crimp+100)} ÷ (warp count × 0.914 × 840×100) = {70×39.384×453.4 × (5+100)} ÷ (60 × 0.914 × 840×100)= 28.50 gram
• Covert the weft count from denier to English count (Ne)= 5315÷ denier= 5315÷ 80= 66.43
• Weft weight= {PPI×39.384×453.4 × (crimp+100)} ÷ (weft count × 0.914 × 840×100) = {60×39.384×453.4 × (7+100)} ÷ (66.43 × 0.914 × 840×100)= 22.48 grams
• Total weight of the fabric = 28.50 +22.48= 50.98 gram per square metre

Step 2: Calculate total cost of yarn

• Cost of the warp yarn= weight in gram × yarn cost/kg= 28.50m × (400 ÷1000)= Rs. 11.4
• Cost of the weft yarn= weight in gram × yarn cost/kg= 22.48 × (300 ÷1000)= Rs. 6.74
• Total cost of yarn per square metre of fabric= 11.4+6.74= Rs. 18.14

Step 3: Calculate grey fabric cost

• Weaving cost of the fabric per square metre= fabric width × pick rate= 56× 0.35= Rs. 19.6
• Cost of the grey fabric= yarn cost + weaving cost= 18.14+ 19.6= Rs. 37.74

Step 4: Calculate GSM every processing step

NB: the values inside the brackets near the processing step are weight add-on % for dyeing and finishing but weight loss percentage for bleaching.

• Wight loss after bleaching= 50.98× 2%= 1.02
• Since it is weight loss, the final GSM is = 50.98-1.02= 49.96
• GSM after dyeing= 49.96+ (4% of 49.96)= 51.96
• GSM after finishing= 51.96 + (6% of 51.96)=55.08

Step 5: Process cost calculation

• Scouring cost= 100 ×( 50.98÷1000)= Rs. 5.00
• Bleaching cost= 80 ×( 50.98÷1000)= Rs. 4.08
• Mercerization cost=  90 ×( 49.96÷1000)= Rs. 4.40
• Dyeing cost= 75 ×( 51.96÷1000)= Rs. 3.9
• Finishing cost= 100 × (55.08÷1000)= 5.51
• Total process cost= 5.00+4.08+4.40+3.9+5.51= Rs. 22.89

Step 6: Calculate woven fabric costing

• Final fabric cost= Grey fabric cost + processing cost=37.74+22.89 = 60.63
• If the fabric consumption per T-shirt is 1.65 square metre,
• The fabric cost per garments= 1.65 × 60.63= Rs. 100.04

## Exercise: Calculate Knitted Fabric Costing

Example 3: Find out the GSM of knitted fabric, the price of yarn, and fabric cost for making a women’s T-shirt made from 100% mercerized cotton using the following details that is shown in table 3.

Solution

Step 1: GSM calculation

• Loop density= courses per inch × wales per inch= 80× 60= 4800
• Yarn length in m= (loop density × 39.384 × 39.384 × loop length in mm)÷ 1000= (4800 × 39.384 × 39.384 × 0.55)÷ 1000= 4,094.90 metres
• GSM= {0.59 × yarn length in m × (100+shrinkage)} ÷ (count × 100)= {0.59 × 4,094.90 × (100+6)} ÷ (60 × 100)= 42.68 grams per square metre
• GSM after compacting= 42.68 + ( 4% of 42.68)= 44.39 grams
• GSM after finish= 44.39 + ( 5% of 44.39)= 46.61 grams

Step 2: Calculate the yarn cost

• Yarn cost= yarn weight per square metre × yarn price = 42.68 × ( 400÷1000)= Rs. 17.07 per square metre

Step 3: Calculate process cost

• Knitting charge= 42.68 × (20÷1000)= Rs. 0.85
• Scouring charge= 42.68 × (60÷1000)= Rs. 2.56
• Bleaching charge= 42.68 × (40÷1000)= Rs. 1.71
• Mercerization= 42.68 × (60÷1000)= Rs. 2.56
• Dyeing charge= 42.68 × (80÷1000)= Rs. 3.41
• Wrinkle free finish= 46.61 × (40÷1000)= Rs. 1.86
• Compacting charge= 44.39 × (10÷1000)= Rs. 0.44
• Total process cost= 0.85+2.56+1.71+2.56+3.41+1.86+0.44= Rs.13.39

Step 4: Calculate knitted fabric costing

• Total fabric cost= Yarn cost + processing cost= 17.07+ 13.39= Rs. 30.46 per square meter.

## Conclusion

These are the calculation of fabric costing. Here, all data provided for understanding purpose. If you have any questions about calculate woven fabric costing or calculate knitted fabric costing, feel free to ask me below comments box.

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