History of Natural fiber
The final product in the short-staple spinning process is a yarn made from fiber. Fibers have been defined, according to Textile Institute, as “units of matter characterized by the flexibility, fineness and high ratio of length to thickness.” Mainly there are two types of fiber. One is a natural fiber, and the other is man-made or synthetic fiber. The fiber which is obtained from the natural source is called natural fiber. On the other hand, the fiber which is obtained by different chemical reaction is called man-made fiber. Natural fiber strength is lower than man-made fiber. Because, man-made fiber’s polymer chains are arranged in regular order. But the polymer chain of natural fiber is stayed in disorder form. That’s means, man-made fiber is more crystalline than natural fiber. Usually, natural fibers are hydrophilic. Because, there are more amorphous region in natural fiber. however, In this article, we will learn the history of natural fiber.
Textile fibers have been used to make cloth for several thousand years. Until 1885, when the first manufactured fiber was produced commercially, fibers were produced by plants and animals. The fibers most commonly used were wool, flax, cotton, and silk. These four natural fibers continue to be used and valued today, although their economic importance relative to all fibers has decreased. We know that natural fibers are those in fiber form as they grow or develop and come from animal, plant, or mineral sources. The first use of natural fibers occurred in 8000 B.D. in Egypt. The earliest evidence of humans using fibers is the discovery of wool and dyed flax fibers found in a prehistoric cave in the republic of Georgia that dates back to 36000 BP. The Swiss Lake Dwellers in 8000 BC cultivated flax and wove linen into fabrics. By 3000 to 2000 BC, the use of fibers was well developed, and cotton weaving was well established in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1793 helped cotton become the king of fibers.
There is an exciting history of invention behind silk fiber. Some archeological evidence indicates that silk production may have begun as early as 5000 BC, more than seven thousand years ago. But silk and sericulture began in china more than 4000 years ago. Empress His Ling Shi sat under a mulberry tree to drink tea. She began playing with a cocoon of the silkworm. When it fell at the drinking tea and discovered it was made of delicate thread. She also observed a silk caterpillar spinning itself into a cocoon. The Empress learned to spin the silk and to make luxurious fabric. The Romans paid one pound of gold for a pound of silk fabric. The Chinese never let out the secret of how the silk was produced. However, in later years, Christian monks smuggled the eggs out of the country. Hence introducing silk manufacture in other nations as well. Natural fibers can be used for high-tech applications, such as composite parts for automobiles and medical supplies. Compared to composites with natural fibers have advantages such as lower density, better thermal insulation, and reduced skin irritation. Further, unlike glass fibers, natural fibers can be broken down by bacteria once they are no longer used.
Natural fibers are suitable water absorbents and can be found in various textures. For example, cotton fiber from the cotton plant produces fabrics that are light in weight, soft in texture, and can be made in various sizes and colors.
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