Why Carding is Called Heart of Spinning? Best Answer with History of Carding

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History of Carding:

Carding machine is the heart of spinning. This the most important question why carding is called heart of spinning. From this article, we learn answer of this question. Before, we will learn history of carding. In 1748, the hand driven carding machine was invented by Lewis Paul of Birmingham, England. Wire slips were wrapped around a card and then around a cylinder. Daniel Bourn acquired a similar patent in 1754 and likely used it in his spiarkirig roil, which burned down in 1754. Later, Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton developed and improved the invention. As part of Arkwright’s second patent (of l775) for his water frame, he included a carding machine, but this patent later became invalid for lack of originality. From the 1780s, carding machines were set up in mills in north England and mid-Wales. The first in Wale, the Dolobran factory near Meifod, was opened in 1789. These mills produced yarn primarily for the Welsh flannel industry. By 1838, the Spon Valley, centred around Cleckheaton, had at least 11 carding factories, and by 1893, it had established itself as the world’s carding capital. Garnett Control, Bridon Wire, Cold Drawn Products, and FCC continue to carry Cleckheaton’s carding legacy.

In order to save money in carding, high production causes the yarn’s quality to suffer. When production is high, the carding operation becomes more sensitive, and there is a greater risk of a negative outcome. In the past few decades, carding has undergone remarkable technological changes. Today’s machines can produce 60 – 100 kg/hour, compared to the 5 – 10 kg/hr production rate before 1970.

Figure 01: Rieter Carding Machine

Why Carding is Called Heart of Spinning?

‘Card is the heart of the spinning mill” and “Well carded is half spun” are two sayings of the experts. These proverbs inform the immense significance of carding in the spinning process. Carding is among the most important processes in a spinning mill, which directly identifies the final characteristics of yarn. In carding, fibers are opened individually; dust and impurities are removed here; parallelizing and stretching of fibers are performed here, as well as fiber orientation and the transformation of fibers into sliver. Since all of the significant qualities of yarn are gained here, so that we can say card is the heart of the spinning or well carded is half spun.

General Operation of Carding Machine:

  1. Fiber transfer: in this operation, a cylinder stripe in the fiber from the taker-in. in this region fiber fiber transfer take place.
  2. Carding: a process in short staple spinning in which the material is carded i.e. greater degree of opening and higher degree of draft is achieved.
  3. Blending: the process of intermingling or combining two or more different textile material is called blending.
  4. Drafting: the action of reducing the thickness or linear density of the feed material by attenuating is known as drafting. Drafting is the process of reduction of mass per unit length or increase length per unit mass.
  5. Condensation: the action by which thin material converted to dense output material for downstream process is defined as condensation.
  6. Doffing: the action by which produced output material is taken up for downstream process is defined as doffing.
  7. Cleaning: the action by which non fiber material is removed is defined as cleaning.
  8. Sliver formation: this operation is done to form sliver from doffer web.
  9. Coiling: the action or mechanism by which produced output material is deposited by coiling i.e. cycloidal rotation to produce package of fiber assembly in stable form to avoid disintegration of the material during usage in downstream process is called coiling.


  • Belal, P. D. (2016). Understanding Textiles for a Merchandiser. Dhaka: LB Graphics & Printing.
  • Chowdhury, M. F. (2016). Manual of short staple spinning. Dhaka: Granthanir Prokashoni.
  • Hossain, M. S. (2014). Introduction to Textile Engineering. Dhaka: Books Fair Publications.
  • Prof. Dr. Engr. Ayub Nabi Khan, E. M. (2088). Principles of short staple spinning. Dhaka: Books Fair.

You May Read:

  1. Objectives and basic function of carding machine.
  2. Working principle of carding machine.

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