The control system of sizing machine plays a crucial role in determining the quality of the size beam. The basis of the quality of the size beam is greatly influenced by the type of control system in the machine. Sizing machines are essential for ensuring the precise and uniform dimensions of various products. A sophisticated control system lies at the heart of every efficient sizing machine. From textiles to metals, accurate sizing of materials is essential to achieving high-quality end products. The system is responsible for overseeing and controlling the entire sizing process, ensuring seamless coordination of various components, and ensuring consistency.
Control System of Sizing Machine:
This article discusses in detail the various controls used in modern sizing machines. Some most important modern control system of sizing machine is mention below. They are:
- Temperature control.
- Size level control.
- Moisture control.
- Stretch control
- Tension control.
1. Temperature Control:
In conventional sizing machines, the temperature of the size box must be manually noted on a regular basis. The same is done with effective devices in modern sizing machines. As well as sense the temperature, these devices also automatically adjust the steam inlet. It is possible to reduce the steam supply if the temperature is too high, and to increase it if the temperature is too low until the desired temperature is reached. Both the size box and the drying cylinders require temperature control.
2. Size Level Control:
‘Size level control’ refers to the process of maintaining a consistent and desired level of sizing material within a container or a system. There are two types of size level control in a sizing machine. These two types of control are:
Float system: This type of size level control system is a mechanical type. It is a conventional type of system that is no longer used in modern sizing machines. Essentially, a metal roller floats on top of the size paste in the size box. This system supplies size paste into the box via a feed valve that opens and closes according to a lever arrangement. However, the main disadvantage is that it takes a long time to respond to changes in size level.
Electrical control system: This system uses two electrodes that are dipped in the size paste in the box. The size paste itself acts as an electrical conducting medium. Various levels of the electrodes are placed in the size paste. The top electrode is just touching and the lower electrode is dipped just a little deeper. In the box, the size paste is just touching the upper electrode when the electric circuit is closed, which closes the pneumatic control feed valve, cutting off the supply of size. Conversely, when the size paste level drops below the lower electrode, the electrical circuit is interrupted and the pneumatically controlled feed valve is triggered to open.
3. Moisture Control:
It is important to control moisture during sizing because it plays a crucial role in determining the quality of the sized warp. In the absence of proper moisture control, over and under drying can occur. It takes a long time for over dried yarns to absorb moisture from the atmosphere, which makes them more rigid, weak, and brittle. Under dried yarns, on the other hand, can pose problems when woven if they have more moisture than is required. These yarns may be more susceptible to biological attacks, as well as causing yarns to stick together more readily. By sticking adjacent yarns in weaving, it can reduce shed formation, shed film formation, and fiber removal. This will result in more end breaks in the loom. Modern moisture control devices are positioned near the weaver’s beam or immediately after the drying system. In addition, a portable device is available for measuring the moisture content of the upper layer of the warp as it is wound on to the beam.
There are three principles that govern the use of moisture measurement instruments, namely:
- Measurement of electrical resistance of warp.
- Measurement of capacitance of warp.
- Measurement of propensity of warp to become electrostatically charged.
4. Stretch Control:
In most cases, modern sizing machines are equipped with either mechanical or electronic stretch indicators. Electronic stretch controllers continuously monitor the yarn stretch on the sizing machine. Whenever the stretch exceeds or goes below pre-set values, an appropriate PIV drive is operated by the servomotor to increase or decrease the pull of yarn through the first pulling nip, depending on whether the stretch is high or low.
5. Tension Control:
It is necessary to pull the yarns from the back beams during sizing since they are not positively driven. This creates a certain tension, which is responsible for the warp sheet stretching. This stretch results in a loss of elongation in the yarn. As a result of the tension imposed on the warp sheet during sizing, yarns permanently elongate. This increase in length is known as stretch. When the yarn stretches, it loses a greater percentage of its elongation at break because it is stretched.
Stretch control zones on modern cylinder sizing machines include;
- Creel zone.
- Wet zone.
- Drying zone.
- Splitting zone
- Winding zone.
- Adanur, S. (2001). Handbook of weaving. Boca Raton: CRC press.
- Gandhi, K. (2012). Woven Textiles. New Delhi: Wood Publication Limited.
- Gokarneshan, D. N. (2009). Weaving Preparation Technology. Delhi: Abhishek Publicaions.
- V. Gordeev, P. V. (1982). Cotton Weaving. Russia: Mir Publishers Moscow.
You May Read:
- Definitions of sizing, objectives and impact on warp yarn.
- Why sizing is called heart of weaving.
- Primary and Secondary Size Ingredients.
- Characteristics of Good Size Ingredients.
- Types and Techniques of sizing.
- Working Principle of Slasher Sizing Machine.
- Size Cooking Equipment.
- Drying Methods in Sizing Process.